STOP Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in the world by JSTOR. Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial purposes. Read more about Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate-jstor/individuals/early- journal-content . JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com. THE JOURNAL OF AMERICAN FOLK-LORE. Vol. XV. — JULY-SEPTEMBER, 1902. — No. LVIII. THE STORY OF BANTUGAN. This is a legend of the Mohammedan tribes or Moros (Moro is the Spanish for Mohammedan or Mussulman) of Mindanao, P. I., in the valley of the Rio Grande de Mindanao. It deals with the adventures of Bantugan and of his friend Datto Baningan. Bantugan is the national hero, and every child is taught the story of Bantugan until he almost knows it by heart. This is the first translation out of the original tongue. Given by word of mouth and translated in 1900 at Cotta Bato, Mindanao, by Major Ralph S. Porter, Surgeon U. S. V. Bantugan and his relatives were : Palamata Bantugan, son of Tinumanan sa Lugun Minulucsa Da- lendeg (brother of the earthquake and thunder). The brothers of Bantugan were : 1, Mapalala Macog ; 2, Madali Macabancas ; 3, Dalumimbang Dalanda ; 4, Damadag la Lupa ; 5, Maladia Langig ; 6, Marandang Datto Sulug ; 7, Malinday Asaba- rat ; 8, Mudsay sa Subu Subu ; 9, Pasandalan na Murud ; 10, Bendera Mudaya ; n, Pamanay Macalayan ; 12, Pandi Macalele. The sisters of Bantugan were : 1, Alcat Ulauanan ; 2, Mandanda Uray ; 3, Dalinding u Subangan. The sons of Bantugan were: 1, Balatama Lumana; Pandumagan Dayuran ; 2, Alungan Pidsiana Lumalang sa Dalisay ; 3, Malinday Abunbara Lumanti Dowa Dowa ; 4, Tankula Bulantakan Bulu Bulu sa Lagat ; 5, Tagatag sa Layagum sa Pigculat ; 6, Lumbay sa Peg- caualau Daliday Malindu ; 7, Lumbay Magapindu. Once upon" a time there came a terrific hurricane which carried the house of the sister of Bantugan from the village of Bombalan to the seacoast. While there it was seen by a Spanish general who was lying off the coast in his warship. The Spanish general's name was Minda- lunu sa Tunu-Miducau sa da Uata. The general put the house with the sister of Bantugan on his war- ship and carried her away to his town of Sugurungan a Lagat 144 Journal of American Folk-Lore. The king of this town was Dumakulay Amalana Dumombang Mapamatu. For capturing this maiden the general was given high rank and honor and was ordered to build a house for the sister close to the house of the king. Now when the king asked Alcat (which was the name of Bantu- gan's sister) to give him some mbama to chew, she refused, saying, " Do not talk to me, for I have been taken from my brothers and am heavy at heart ; if you wish to marry me, go to my brothers and ask them for me." x When the brothers of Alcat knew that she had been stolen away from them, they were heavy at heart also. Then said Bantugan, " Prepare all of our warboats and launch my great warship Linu- muntan Mapalo Mabuculud Linayum. Put out all our battle-flags and let all my brothers gather with me to search for our sister." When they were all aboard the captain of Bantugan's warboat called out to it, " Sail like the wind, Linumuntan, so that we may overtake the wicked Spanish general who has carried away the sister of our datto " (chief). But the ship did not obey his command, and Malinday Asabarat, the seventh brother of Bantugan, said, " It must be that we have a bad soldier on board ; let us find out who he is and kill him, that we may proceed on our journey." Then Malinday pointed out a soldier whose name was Masualo Savani Masunu Sakasumba, whose great fault was that he made love to the wives of the dattos and other married women. When this man knew he was to die, he said, " Tell my friends when you return that I died in battle and not that I was executed." Then Malinday took him to the bow of the ship and with one stroke of his campilan (Moro broadsword) cut off his head. When the sol- dier was dead the ship at once began to speed through the water with tremendous velocity, so that all the great fish of the sea were much afraid. Before long they came to a small island and there anchored, and four men carried the body of the soldier ashore and buried it. Mapalala Macog now suggested that they rest here a while and sleep. While they were sleeping there came to anchor on the other side of the island a warship of Datto Baningan, who was the ac- cepted lover of Bantugan's sister, Alcat Ulauanan, who had been car- 1 Mbama — A package of bongo nut, bulla (pronounced booya) leaf, lime, and tobacco, considered a delicious combination for a chew by the Moros. If a Moro woman hands a roll of this to a man, it signifies that she is willing to receive his addresses. The Story of Banlugan. 145 ried away by the Spaniard, and whom Bantugan had started to search for. Baningan had ordered the colintangan (large Moro xylophone) to be played in his warship, which was called the Katipapabayan Lum- bayan Dakadua, meaning the two-tailed crocodile of the sea. Now Bendera Mudaya, the tenth brother of Bantugan, heard the loud playing of Baningan's colintangan and he became very wroth, for he thought it would disturb his brother Bantugan's rest, so he called a thousand soldiers and had the lantakas (cannon) fired at the ship of Baningan, and the shot carried away all the principal masts of Baningan's ship and killed many of his soldiers. Now Baningan's brother, whose name was Mapandala sa Dalen Matankin sa Gavi (he that bites like the pepper of the deep forest), called the master of the ship, whose name was Salindala Kabunga Salgangka sa Bukau, and ordered him to return the fire ; but said the master, " Let us first ask permission of Datto Baningan," who just now awakened and inquired what had happened. Mapandala replied that Bantugan's ship had fired on them and begged to be allowed to fire back " No," said Baningan, " if we fire on Bantugan I can then never marry his sister." " But," said the brother, " look at the ruin of the ship and the loss of men. Let this woman go and let us revenge ourselves." " No," said Baningan ; " seeing that you my brother still live not even the loss of ships or men will compel me to attack the great and honorable Bantugan." So Baningan gave orders for his anchors to be raised and his ship to be sailed straight for Bantugan's ship, that they might converse. Baningan sat in the bow (ulunan) with two gold-embroidered um- brellas held over him. Now when Bendera Mudaya recognized that it was Baningan he had fired at, he broke into tears and cried out, " Ama ku " (my father), " do not scold me. I thought your ship was the ship of our enemies. It is all my fault ; do with me as you will." " No," said Baningan ; "we are equally sad, let us say no more of it. I but beg of Bantugan to allow me to lash my ship to his." This was soon done and the dattos greeted each other. Then Baningan asked, "What brings you out in your warship with so many soldiers and lantakas?" When Baningan had been told that his sweetheart had been carried away by the Spaniards his grief was very great, and with a common enemy these two dattos sealed their friendship. After a council it was decided that Bantugan should continue the search by sea and that Baningan should go by land, as his ship was no longer seaworthy. After the council Baningan returned to his own ship and cast 146 Journal of American Folk-Lore. loose from Bantugan, who sailed away. All the panditas (priests) were now called together by Baningan and were asked for their advice as to how to proceed to find the lost maiden. They told him, when he started out, not to go as a datto with fine raiment and many fol- lowers, but to go alone in the disguise of a tiruray, 1 and that if he went this way he would surely meet with success. So Baningan sent his brother Mapandala back with the ship to their village of Cudarangen, there to be ruler in his stead. But the brother's heart was heavy, for he wanted to go also on the trip, and he begged unavailingly of Baningan to let him go, but he would not consent. So Baningan went ashore and Mapandala put his ship about to return home, but when Baningan was well out of sight Mapandala turned again and started to follow Bantugan as best he could, mak- ing many repairs to his ship. In a day or two he passed by a large town called Pamamaluy a ig Alamay a Lagat, and there encountered a great Spanish warship whose captain inquired where he was from. Mapandala answered, " From Cudarangen." Then the Spaniard asked him where he was going. Mapandala answered, " To search for the sister of Datto Ban- tugan." Whereupon the Spanish fired upon him ; the general on the ship was the same one who had carried away Bantugan's sister, and he ordered Mapandala to return to Cudarangen, saying that not far away there was a fleet of a thousand Spanish ships waiting for Bantugan and his followers. " Nevertheless," said Mapandala, " I shall not return." And the battle began at once, between Mapan- dala and the Spaniard. The latter soon won, and Mapandala was badly injured so that his entrails fell out. Both boats were badly injured and many were killed on both sides, but the Spaniards were able to float and navigate, and they looted Mapandala's boat and then returned to their village. Mapandala's boat was finally cast upon the beach, where it was seen by Baningan who came by there on foot at that very moment. He at once boarded her, and when Mapandala saw some one coming he cried out for water which Baningan brought him. When they recognized each other Baningan embraced his brother and wept to see him so sorely wounded. Mapandala said, "I am surely dying." But Banignan called for a fairy from Cudarangen to take his brother back and cure him there of his wounds with a great medicine which he had at home in his chest. When the fairy had taken Mapandala, Baningan went on his way. 1 A tiruray is one of a tribe that lives up in the mountains, sometimes in trees, and in the most primitive way. They are gradually becoming extinct, dying of starvation, from lack of energy enough to till the most fertile of soils. The Story of Bantugan. 147 The warship of Bantugan finally reached the village of the Span- iards, Sudurungan a Lagat, and there found a thousand Spanish war- ships, who at once fired upon them, but the only effect of their firing was to push Bantugan farther away, not a single cannon-ball pene- trating his ship. Baningan continued on his road, and after many days reached a high hill from which he could see the great city of the Spaniards, with many ships in the harbor and many more on guard at its en- trance. This great display frightened Baningan very much, for he thought to himself, " At the very door of the city I will die." So he decided to go back to the brother of Bantugan, who was named Pasandalan na Murud, and who was the sultan of I Labumbalan Tankulabulantakan, and ask him what he should do in the face of such dreadful obstacles. He had not gone far until two little golden birds alighted on his shield (klung) and told him not to go back, for he would be laughed at, and all would say that he was not worthy of his sweetheart. Baningan then smote his breast and decided to return to the search even though he died ten times. He then hid his shield and cam- pilan (broadsword) in a hollow rock and carried only a bow and arrows. As he was passing along the coast he saw the ships of the Spanish general sailing by who had destroyed his own boat. The Spanish general also saw him and called to him to come on board his ship, for he did not think that he had the walk — or carriage of a poor tiruray. So Baningan went aboard the Spanish ships, and the soldiers were so thick on the deck that he could not help stepping on them as he passed. This made the soldiers mad, but the general said, " Never mind ; he is only a poor tiruray, and does not know good manners." The tiruray walked right up and sat down close by the side of the general, which made the general mad on the inside, but he did not show it. Then the general asked him, " Where are you from ? " He answered, " From Lalansayan Lalanun." Now the general knew that the king's brother lived with this family and so the tirurary, who was Baningan in disguise, said that he had been sent by the king's brother to inquire if it was true that the king had captured the sister of Bantugan, and for the king to beware, for Ban- tugan was a powerful and dangerous enemy. Then the general told a great lie, saying that they had had a big war with Bantugan and that Alcat had been given as a peace offering. This great lie maddened the tiruray, so that for a minute he wanted to go "idzavil" (run amuck or juramentado). 1 The general 1 Juramentado — A Moro who makes a vow before the priest to die taking the 148 Journal of American Folk-Lore. noticed that the tiruray was getting mad, and asked, " Why are you red in the face ? I believe that you are Baningan, and if you are you will go no farther." But the tiruray answered and said, " Show me Baningan, and I myself will slay him." Then the gen- eral said, " Tell me truly from where you come ? " The tiruray answered and said, " From Lansayan Aluna Lundingan Apamalui Deliday Linauig Lumbay Lungan a Lagat, whose datto is Daliday Linauig Lumbay Alungan a Lagat, who is a brother to your king." Then the general and the tiruray shook hands, and the general asked, " What is your errand here ? " The tiruray answered, " I come by order of the brother of the king to see if it was true that the king had the sister of Datto Bantugan in his city and if she was beautiful or not." The general said, "She is as beautiful as the moon." The tiruray now asked the general to take him to see the sister of Bantugan, for he alone would not be allowed to pass the gates. So the general and Baningan went ashore and walked towards the city of the king, and when they reached the gates the guard would only allow the general to pass and would not admit the tiruray. But the general said, " This tiruray is a good man and comes from the town of the king's brother." Then the captain of the guard said, " No, he cannot pass, for I know that in the city of the king's brother there are no tirurays." " Yes," said Baningan, " that is true, but I do not claim to live in the town of the king's brother, but in a village near it named Malasan sa Ulay Uluban sa Bulauan." " Well," said the captain of the guard, " you may go in ; you look innocent at any rate." So in they went, and soon they came to the second guard, whose captain asked the general, "What is your business with the king ? " The general said, " To beg permission of the king to return to my family." " Who is the tiruray with you," asked the captain of the guard. " Oh, he is all right, I will vouch for him," said the general. Then the captain of the guard said, " Well, you may both pass, but the law is that all who pass this gate must pass through dancing." So they both danced their way through the gate. By and by they reached the house of the king, where there were many guards, who did not care to have the tiruray pass, but the king, when he heard that there was a tiruray below, ordered the guard to admit him and bring the man up to him, and when the tiruray had entered the palace he found the floor covered with soldiers sitting and lying down. He clumsily stepped on several, blood of a Christian, and believes that in so doing he will go at once to heaven. So he starts out with his sword and attacks every Christian he can find until he is himself killed. The Story of Bantugan. 149 who immediately wanted to kill him, but the king said, " No, he is only a tiruray and knows no manners ; do not hurt him." Then the tiruray walked straight up to the throne and sat right down beside the king, to the great fear of the general, who told him not to, for the king would surely scold him or kill him. When the courtiers saw this poor beggar take his seat by the king's side, they begged permission to kill him for his presumption. But the king said, " No, I will question him first." While Baningan was seated beside the king he saw the armor of his brother lying on the floor and covered with blood. His face became red and the tears fell from his eyes, and he again wanted to be an " idzavil," but on second thought decided not to, for if he did he could not succeed in seeing his sweetheart. The king asked him why his face was so red and why he was crying. Baningan answered, " I cry, for I cannot see the sister of Bantugan." Then asks the king, " What do you know of the sister of Bantugan, and where do you come from ? " Baningan answered, " From your brother's town." Then the king at once asked him, " Is my brother well and happy ? " " Yes," said the tiruray, who then asked, " Is the sister of Bantugan as beautiful as she is reported to be ? " " Yes," said the king, " she is as beautiful as the moon." Then Baningan asked the king's permission to see her so that he could tell the king's brother of her beauty. So the king told the tiruray to go and ask Alcat for bulla for the king to chew, and to tell her that if she would not give it he would have her head cut off. When the tiruray reached the house in which the sister of Bantu- gan was kept, a wife of the king (whose name was Salagambal Kla Undiganan) came forward and asked him what he wanted. When he told her, she asked him to come in and sit down, but Baningan said, " I wait for the order of the sister of Bantugan." But the sister of Bantugan did not care to order the tiruray to come in, for he was of low blood. But on the solicitation of the other wives of the king, she told him to come in and sit down. When the tiruray came in the house he sat down close to Alcat, who scolded him for it, and ordered him away, but the wives of the king said, " No, he is only a poor tiruray and knows no better ; let him stay and we will have some sport with him." Then Bantugan's sister asked him from whence he came. He answered, " From Mapulud Salin Kikan Palau sa Linun Kayo." Then Alcat at once asked him if he knew Datto Bantugan. The tiruray answered and said, " Yes, I know him, but I have heard that he was killed not long ago in a fight with the Spaniards. Also his brother Mapalala Macog, who was killed by a crocodile, and all the other brothers are dead in the warship of Dalumimbang Dalanda." 150 Journal of American Folk-Lore. When hearing this the sister of Bantugan fell in a faint (the name of the warship was Timbalangay a Uatu Timbidayala Sunga). When Alcat had recovered from her faint, she asked the tiruray if he knew Baningan. At this the tiruray laughed and showed his teeth, which the sister of Bantugan recognized at once, but she gave no sign of recognition. Then the tiruray said, " Baningan fell in a cave a week ago and has not come out yet." Then he took a " ma- lung " (a Moro dress) and put it on in Moro style and seized the sis- ter of Bantugan and put her on his lap. She did not scold him, but asked, " Can you win in a fight with the Spaniards and take me home to my family ? " Baningan answered and said, " Win or lose, I will not leave you. The king has sent me to bring him bulla from you and if you don't give it he will kill you." "Well," said Bantugan's sister, ''let him kill me; I will not give him the bulla." Baningan now called the fairies to bring his campi- lan and rodella and prepared himself for a fight. Alcat cried and said, " If you leave me now even for a minute, you will never come back." "Yes," said Baningan, "I will come back." He then rhade himself invisible by a spell and went out to the harbor mouth where he could get a stone to sharpen his campilan. While all this was going on, the king became very impatient at the non-return of the tiruray and sent for him. The women told the messenger that the tiruray had gone some time before, and when the king heard this he said, "The tiruray does not return, for he is ashamed to return without the bulla which Bantugan's sister has refused." The king then ordered a well dug and had the sister of Bantugan brought to it, that she might be drowned in it. But the courtiers begged that she be spared, for, they said, " if you kill the sister of Ban- tugan, we will surely have a war with Bantugan and his brothers, and they are very brave men and have many followers." But the king became more and more angry and took his sabre to kill the sister of Bantugan. At that moment Baningan returned in his invisible state and stood by her side. Alcat now said to Baningan, " What are you going to do now ? " He answered, " I will take you up to the top of the highest cocoanut-tree," which he did, and when he returned, became visible to all the court clad in armor and with his campilan and klung. He was at once surrounded by the general and the sol- diers of the court, who attacked him, but Baningan defended him- self so well that every stroke of his campilan cut off ten heads. In the mean time, Bantugan arrived at the harbor mouth and heard a great commotion in the city, which was caused by the fight that was going on between Baningan and the king's soldiers. On The Story of Bantugan. 151 learning this Bantugan ordered his ship to pass under the water instead of on top, until he reached the point not far from the Span- ish fleet. His ship then ascended to the surface, causing great com- motion and excitement among the Spaniards. Madali Macabancas now suggested that the ship be anchored bow and stern. This was scarcely done before the Spaniards opened fire on them, and for seven days the fire continued, so that the smoke was so thick that it made the day the same as night. At the end of the seventh day the smoke rose a little and the Spaniards saw that Bantugan's boat was still uninjured, while they were badly cut up. Their bullets had simply pushed Bantugan's ship farther away. Marandang Datto Sulug now said, " Let us go ashore with cam- pilan (sword) and klung" (shield). This was done, and the course of fighting was done at once. At the same time Baningan was still fighting within the walls. Just at this time Datto Sulune Cudungingan sa Colingtongan, of the town of Sungiline a Dinal Hayrana Amiara, arrived in his great warship, Galawongat Tinumcup Ukil a Keranda. This datto, whose sister Bantugan was in love with, came to see if he could not act as a peacemaker and have the quarrel cease, so that all should be friends. He first spoke to Bantugan and told him to quit fighting, so that he could arrange matters with the king, and that anyway Bantugan could not win, for the Spaniards were too many for him. Bantugan answered, and said, " If they give back my sister, I will fight no more, but if not, we will fight to the death." "Well," said the datto, "wait till I have spoken to the king before you fight any more." So the datto went in and reached the place where Baningan was fighting and also prevailed upon him to wait and fight no more till he had spoken to the king. When the datto reached the palace, the king agreed to quit fighting if Bantugan would give Alcat to him in marriage. But the datto said, " If you insist on that condition, the war will last for many years, for Bantugan surely will not give his sister to you, for he has contracted to give her to Baningan." " Well," said the king, " Alcat can go, but her companions must stay, for I prefer Moros to Spaniards." Then the datto said, "No, this is not good, the fighting will surely continue if you insist on this." " Well," said the king, " let them all go, but I do not want to see Bantugan at all." So the datto carried the house and all the women and Alcat down to the ship of Bantugan and put them on board, and Bantugan then 1 5 2 Journal of American Folk-Lore. returned to his country with Baningan (the country of Bantugan was named Ilian a Bumbalan Tankalabulantakan), and when they reached there the house was replanted in its former place, and all were happy. Now the older brother (Mapalala Macog) said, " Now let Bantugan marry." And it was decided that Bantugan should marry Minilig Urugung Managam a Dalendeg, who was the daughter of the sultan Minialungan Simban of Minifigi a Lungung Minaga na Dalendeg. Pasandalan na Murud now called Dalumimbang Dalanda and Damagag da Lupa, and ordered them to make a journey to the country of the sultan and ask his daughter's hand in marriage for Bantugan. " Well," they said, " if the sultan refuses we will not return until we have punished them well." '•' No," said Pasandalan, "that will not do. I will get another messenger ; " and he called Mapalala Macog, who answered the same as did all the other brothers. "Well," said Pasandalan, "I will go myself;" but Pandi Macalayan objected and said, " No, let us send Bantugan's son, Balatama Lumana Alcat, Pandumagan Dayuran." (This boy was the son of Bantugan's sister whom Bantugan had married innocently, because when Bantugan was born he was sent away on a ship and did not return until he was grown up, and not knowing his sister Alcat, fell in love with her and married her, and this boy was born before they knew of their relation- ship.) When the son was found, he was brought before Pasandalan and said, " Why am I, a child, to be sent on this errand. Why do not some of my uncles go?" "Well," said Pasandalan, "I will go." " No," said the son, " let me go as the rest wish." But now Bantugan interrupted and objected to this small boy being sent on so important and dangerous an errand. But the brothers all insisted, and so he was sent away to prepare himself and to return to be instructed. When he came back properly dressed, his mother also came crying, not wanting him to go so far away. But the boy said, " I go be- cause my uncles cannot." Now Pasandalan said to him, " Have patience and speak good word with the sultan, and even if they speak ill to you have patience as long as you can, but when you cannot stand it any longer, of course you must fight." So the arms of Bantugan were given him, and when he started away he told them that if he did not return in three months it would surely be that he was dead. So he bade good-by to all and started on his journey. After he had been gone some hours Dalumimbang Dalanda dis- guised himself and went out to try the boy's courage, and appeared The Story of Ban tugan. 153 before Balatama as an old man and asked him where he was going. Balatama answered and told his errand. Then Dalumimbang said, "You cannot go any farther ; you must return." But the boy said, "No, I will continue on my errand." "Well, then," said the old one, " if you don't go back I will kill you." At this the boy took his campilan and struck at the old one, who disappeared in the air. Then he kept on his journey, and on reaching a high stone he was able to look back and see the village from which he had come. The sight made him cry and he wanted to return, but the recollection of the order of his uncles made him keep on his way. By and by a little bird came by and perched upon his shoulder, and asked him where he was going, and on being told said, " Do not go any farther because Mimdalanu sa Tunu Midsicau di Uato is wait- ing for you to kill you." But the boy went on just the same, and that night slept on the beach in a bed made of magical snake-belt. In the morning his heart called to him to awake, and when he arose it was with such a bound that it made the beach tremble. So he continued on his journey, and by and by came to a stone in the form of a man. It was named Mamilbang a Uato and was sur- rounded by a fence made out of wood called Kayo Naniarugun Kayo Rani Dalandeg, and the land which this fence inclosed belonged to the wife of Satan. It lay across the road and obstructed his way, so he took his campilan and cut down the fence, which made the wife of Satan very mad, so she made the air to be as dark as night ; and the boy began to cry, for he could not see his way to continue the journey. Then the wife of Satan made it rain stones as large as houses, but the boy protected himself by holding his shield over him and prayed and called for the winds from the home land to come and help him, which they did, and the air became clear again and the rain ceased, and then Balatama saw the wife of Satan in a window of her house and took her to be his mother, for she resembled her so much. The woman called to him to come up into the house, which he did, and then she asked him what his errand was, and on being told said to him, " Do not go any farther, for the Spaniards are wait- ing for you to kill you." But the boy said he would go on his way nevertheless. Then the woman asked him if he had a charm of gold in the shape of a man. The boy answered, and said that he had one. Then he bade good-by to Satan's wife and started on his journey again. Soon on the road he met a big man-monster with horns who asked him where he was going. The boy told him, and then the monster said to him, * You cannot go any farther ; go back to your country where you come from." But Balatama took his campilan and made a stroke at the monster, who disappeared in the air. 154 J ournal of American Folk-Lore. A little farther on he came across a great snake on the road, who also asked his errand, and on being told, the snake said, " No, you cannot pass, for I am the guard on the road, and none can pass here." So the snake made a motion to seize him, but the boy with his campilan cut the snake into two pieces and threw one half into the sea and one half into the mountains and then went on his way. After many days he came to a stone set in the middle of the road. It glowed and glistened as if it were made of pure gold, and from this point he could see the city to which he was going. It was a fine large town with ten harbors. He saw one house which seemed to be made of crystal and which he supposed was the house of the sultan. When he came nearer the city, he saw a house made of pure gold. It took him a long time to reach the harbor mouth, although from the golden stone it appeared to be but a short distance. When he entered the city gates, he was very careful not to mix with the crowds, for he did not know what kind of people he would meet. When he did meet some of the people they asked him where he was going, but he did not answer them, for they were only work- ingmen and he, a datto's son, would not converse with them. As he passed the streets all the people stared at him, but he was very beautiful and was admired by all ; as he went along he passed a number of datto's sons playing "sefa." They asked him to play, but he said he did not know how. Then one of them said, " Who are you and from where, that you cannot play • sefa ? ' " but the son of Bantugan said, " You need n't ask of me ; are you the sultan of this town ? " The young man who had questioned him (Batalasala- pay an Datto sa Ginaeuaan) said, " I am of high blood," and was very wroth. " Well," said the son of Bantugan, " if you want to fight, I guess you can do so now." So they fought until an old man came and made them stop. In the mean time some one had carried word to the sultan that there were two people fighting, so the sultan ordered them both brought before him. When they were brought, the son of Bantugan went up and sat down next to the sultan, which made all the other Moros furious, and then the courtiers begged that he might be killed, but the sultan said, " No, let us question him first." Ban- tugan's son said that before he told his errand to the sultan he wanted all the dattos' sons and dattos present to hear, but they told him it would take too long to gather them. Then Balatama said that before he spoke he wanted all persons to take off their hel- mets. But they thought this was too much and were very wroth, and wanted to kill him at once. The son of Bantugan then said, " Pshaw, what are you all to me ? you are nothing." Then the The Story of Bantugan. 1 5 5 sultan said, " Tut, tut, let all take off their helmets so that we can hear this young man's story, for if we kill him we will know nothing of his errand, or from where he comes." So all the helmets were taken off and Balatama arose and told him his name and where he was from. And then all became of a good heart again and the sul- tan then asked Balatama to tell them his errand. " I am sent by Pasandalan na Murud Bandelo Madayo to ask for the daughter of the sultan for Datto Bantugan." The sultan then said to his courtiers, " You, my friends, answer the request." One courtier then said (Bambay sa Pananian), " I don't see how Bantu- gan can marry the sultan's daughter, because the first gift (sungut) must be a figure of a man or a woman in pure gold." "Well," said Bantugan's son, "I am here to hear what you want and to say whether it could be given or not." "Well," said another datto, " you must also give a great yard with the floor of gold, three feet thick (this datto's name was Midtumula Buisan Ninbantas Balaba- gan). "Well," said Bantugan's son, "all this can be given." Then the sister of the princess spoke up and said, " The gifts must be as many as the blades of grass in this city." " It can be given," said Balatama. A datto named Daliday sa Lugungan said, " You must also give a bridge (talitay) built of stone, to cross the Pulangui (Rio Grande de Mindanao)." " It can be given," said Balatama. Batatalatayan now said, " You must change this city from a city of wooden buildings to a city of stone buildings." And Dalendegen Sangilan said, " You must give a ship of stone." Daliday su Milen demanded that all the cocoanuts in the sultan's grove be turned into gold and also the leaves. " All this would be done," said the son of Bantugan. "Mapalala Macog will give the yard of gold ; Malinday Assabarat the bridge of stone ; Dalumimbang Dalanda the boat of stone ; Matabalau Man- guda will give the many gifts ; Siagambalanua the golden cocoas. The golden statue I will give. Very well," said Balatama, "but I will have to go back my to father's town (Bombalan) to get it." At this one of the dattos scolded and said, " You are surely a liar and do not intend to get the statue at all. Let us cut his head off." And the sultan said, " Yes, let us have the golden statue now or we will kill you." " No," said Balatama ; "if I give you the statue now there will be dreadful storms, rain, and darkness." But they only laughed at him and demanded the statue. So he reached into the helmet and drew forth the statue of gold, and immediately there was a great storm and earthquakes and it rained stones as big as houses. And the sultan called to Balatama to put back the statue, for they would surely be all 1 56 Journal of American Folk-Lore. killed if he did not. "Well," said Balatama, "you would not believe me when I told you, and now I am going to let the storm continue." But the sultan begged him to put back the statue, and said that if he would put it back Bantugan might come and marry his daughter and give no other presents at all but the'golden statue. So Balatama put back the statue, and the air became calm again, to the great re- lief of the sultan and the dattos. " Now," said Balatama, " I will return. But first let me see the future wife." This was granted, and they asked him when Bantugan would come to the wedding. He told them in three months. So Balatama went to the palace and at the door was stopped by a female guard (Siagambal Anunan Kelam Anandinganan). She told him to sit down and have some bulla to chew. But he answered and said that he was but a child, and did not chew it. When the princess saw the boy she asked him what he came for. He told her that he had come to see her and then go back and tell his father of her beauty. The princess gave him a ring and a hand- kerchief for a present and then he bade her good-by. On the road home he again met the wife of Satan, who compelled him to stay with her for four months. There was a sailor of the sea from Kindalungan Minaga Delandeg and another from Ibat a Kadalan, a Spanish town. They met on the high seas, and after greeting each other the second one asked the first one, " Is it true that Bantugan is going to marry the daughter of the sultan ? " " Yes," said the first one, " great preparations are being made for it." Then the second one said, " Why, does he not know that the great General Linumimbang Sandaw Minabi Salungan is going to marry the same princess ? " "No," said the first, "and I suppose it would not make any difference if he did know." So the sailors separated, and the Spanish sailor went straight up to the gen- eral and told him that Bantugan was preparing to marry the sultan's daughter. The general at once ordered a great expedition to be prepared, and called the chief pandita (Batataswalian) and asked him if he thought it was a good hour for it. " No," said the chief, " if you go now they will surely have a big fight and you will lose." Neverthe- less the general embarked in his great warship, the Minanaga su Macag Maluba Kuman sa Tau, also with him were all of his brothers and following after him were ten thousand other ships. They went to the sultan's city, and their number was so great that they filled the harbor, greatly frightening the people of the city. And the general's brother disembarked and went to the house of the sultan, where he demanded the princess for his brother, saying The Story of Bantugan. 157 that if she was not given the fleet would destroy the city and all the people. This frightened the sultan and his courtiers very much, so they decided to give the daughter to the general and asked him to fix the date for the wedding. He told him that it would be the first full moon. Then the general's brother left, saying that the general would soon come to see them. Bantugan prepared everything for the wedding, which he expected would take place at the appointed time. But the days went by and Bantugan and his brothers were very much afraid, for the boy had not returned and they feared that he was dead. So after the three months had passed, Bantugan prepared a big expedition to go in search of his son. The great warship was decorated with flags of gold and all the mosquito bar was made of silk. When they came in sight of the sultan's city one of Bantugan's brothers saw the Spanish fleet in the harbor, and advised Bantugan not to enter until the Spaniards had left. So they brought their ship to anchor, and all felt very sad because they could go no farther. Pidsayana Alungan, a son of Bantugan, came and asked his uncles why they were so sad, but they would not answer him, so he went back, and another son, Bulubulu sa Lagat, came and asked the same of his uncles, but they would not answer him. Another son now came. Lumbay sa Layagum Pegcaualau Daliday Malindu came and asked the same of his uncles, but none would answer him. Lumbay Magapindu came and asked the same ques- tion, but they would give him no answer. Now came Datto Baningan, who asked the same question of the brothers of Bantugan, saying, " Fear not." But they would give him no answer. Pandi Macalele came and asked of his brothers, "Why didn't you answer ? Why don't we go on ? Even if the grass turns into Spaniards we need not fear." Then Mapalala Macog came and asked the same, saying, "Why do you fear? even if the cannon-balls come like rain and lightning, we can fight always." But still no answer. Then Marandung Datto Sulung came and spoke to Bantu- gan. " Why do all our brothers not answer when questioned ? Do they fear the Spaniards ? Anyway, we are here only to find the son who has not returned, so let us return to Bombalan." "No," said Bantugan, " let us seek my son, and even if we enter the harbor where the Spaniards are, let us continue the search." So at Bantu- gan's command the anchors were raised and they sailed into the harbor where lay the Spanish fleet. The general and his brother were with the sultan, and were about 158 Journal of American Folk-Lore. to go and call to see the princess, and when they reached the palace the daughter called them in and was very nice to them, offering the bulla to the gentlemen. The general's brother admired one of the sisters of the princess very much, and asked her for bulla, but she laughed at him and would not give it, called him names, and made much fun with him, saying, he was not the general's brother, etc., etc., but only a bilan, manobo, or tiruray, and could not marry her, for he must marry a tiruray. This made the brother of the general very mad and he drew his kris to strike her, but his companion stopped him. Then the sister of the princess said to him, " Why don't you kill me ? I am not afraid of you ; " and then she went to the window to cool off, for shewas very mad at the general and his brother. And the sight of the Spanish fleet in the harbor increased her rage, but just then a parrot with golden plumage hopped into the window and told her to look out into the harbor mouth and there she saw Bantugan's ships entering the harbor, so she called her sister to see them, who came, but could not tell whose flags they were. Then the general's brother came and looked and said, " We must go and see at once whether it is the fleet of Bantugan, and if it is we must go and kill him and all his people." So the brother returned to the sultan and asked him if he knew whose ships were coming into the harbor. The sultan said, " No, I do not know, but will send for my father and see if he knows." So he sent one of his brothers to go and call the father, who, as he was very old, was kept in a little dark room by himself, so he could not get hurt. The sultan said, " If he is so bent with age that he cannot see, talk, or walk, tickle him in the ribs, and that will make him young again, and you, my brother, carry him here yourself. Do not trust him to the slaves, for if he should fall he would break himself and die." So the old man was brought, and when he looked at the flags on the ship he said that they were the flags of Bapa ni Bantu- gan (father of Bantugan), who was a great friend of his in his younger days ; and then he told the sultan that he and Bantugan's father had made a contract years ago that their children and chil- dren's children should intermarry, and now the sultan had promised his daughter to two people and that great trouble would come on the land. So the sultan said to the general, " Here are two claimers to my daughter's hand. Go aboard your ships and you and Bantu- gan go and fight it out, and he who wins will have my daughter." So the Spaniards opened fire upon Bantugan, and for three days the earth was covered with smoke from the battle, so that neither could see his enemy. The Spanish general said, " I cannot see Bantugan or the fleet anywhere, so let us go and claim ihe princess." The Story of Bantugan. 159 And when they reached the sultan they demanded his daughter, but the sultan said, " No, let us wait until the smoke rises to make sure that Bantugan is gone." Pamanay Macalayan called to Maladia Langig and they two went to Bantugan and decided to engage the Spanish fleet. They took down the flags of gold and put up the battle-flags, and when they came within range of the Spanish fleet they opened fire, and their cannon-balls carried away great pieces of the mountains, and many of the Spanish fleet were sunk and great darkness and smoke came over the earth. When the smoke arose the ships of Bantugan were seen to be all unharmed, so the sultan said, " Bantugan has surely won, for his fleet is uninjured and yours is badly damaged and you have lost." " No," said the general, "we will fight it out on land." So he landed all of his troops and cannon and made ready to meet Bantugan on the land, and when all were landed and ready the Spaniard sent his challenge against Bantugan. Bantugan landed his troops and can- non, but before he commenced fighting he paid his respects to the princess and sultan in case he should be killed. After the fight had begun the Spaniards saw that they could never win with guns and cannon, so they set upon Bantugan with campilans and spears, and soon the general's brother (Masuala Subangam) was killed by Bantugan. Before long the ground was covered with corpses and the rivers were dammed up with their numbers. So the sultan sent word for them not to fight any more, for the air and water were so polluted with the dead bodies. But the Spaniard answered and said, " If you give your daughter to Bantugan we will fight forever or until we are dead." The sultan sent a messenger to Bantugan say- ing, " Let us deceive the Spaniard in order to get him to go away. Let us tell him that you will not marry my daughter, and then we are sure he will leave, and then after he is gone, we can have the wedding." Bantugan agreed to this, and word was sent to the Span- iards that Bantugan would not marry the sultan's daughter, and that the fighting should cease, because the cannon-balls were killing many of the women and children in the city. The Spaniard and Bantugan agreed that neither of them should marry the Princess and that they should be friends. So both the Spaniard and Bantu- gan sailed away to their home. But Bantugan soon returned and married the princess and continued on his search for his son. He soon found him in the house of the wife of Satan, and took him home with him. vol. xv. — no. 58. 12 1 60 "Journal of A merican Folk-Lore. The Spanish general sailed away for about a week, for his home, and then turned about to return to take the princess away by force, for his heart was deceitful, and when he arrived at the city of the sultan, and found that the princess had been carried away by Ban- tugan, his wrath knew no bounds, so that he destroyed the sultan, his city, and all of its people, and then sailed away to his own city to prepare a great expedition with which he should utterly annihilate Bantugan and his country. When he arrived off the mouth of the Pulangui with his enormous fleet, their numbers were so great that the horizon could not be seen in any direction. When Bantugan saw this display of force, his heart sank within him, for he saw that he and his country were doomed to destruction, as he could not hope to gain in a fight with so formidable an antag- onist, and such great superiority in numbers. They called a meet- ing of all the dattos and none could offer any advice, so Bantugan arose and said, " My brothers, the Christian dogs have come to de- stroy the land, and we cannot successfully oppose them, yet we can die in defence of the fatherland." So the great warship of Bantu- gan was again prepared and all the soldiers of Islam embarked thereon, and all their dattos, and with Bantugan standing at the bow they sailed forth to meet their fate. As they approached the Spanish fleet, Bantugan shouted forth his war-song, — With my campilan which kills many, with my bloody campilan, shining with its gold ornaments, its bombol (a tassel of red hair attached to the handle of the campilan) made from the hair of a beautiful widow, which flashes like the ray of the sun at sunrise. With the beauty of its golden grip coming from the heaven heavenly. Its edge sharp as lightning and reaching even to the heavens. Flash- ing of its own accord and thirsting for the blood of the Christian dogs. I take it in my hands with such force that the gems in my rings burst from their settings, and fly away like birds. I take my shield painted by my sister, inlaid with flashing pearl. Its grip made of pure gold. Its button a great brilliant. My belt of golden snake. My amu- lets of pearl, the buttons on my armor taken from the stars. My turban of silver cloth and my helmet of gold. I go to my death, but with me shall die many of ye, Christian dogs. The fighting soon became fast and furious, but in less than a day it was plainly seen that the Spaniards were winning, and the great warship of Bantugan was filling with water until at last it sank, drawing with it hundreds of the Spaniard's ships, and then a strange thing happened. At the very point where Bantugan's warship sank there arose from the sea a great island covered with bongo palms. The wife of Bantugan, when she saw that her husband was no more and that his warship was destroyed, gathered together the remaining warriors and set forth herself to avenge him. In a few The Story of Bantugan. 161 hours her ship was also sunk and in the place where it sank there arose the mountain of Timaco. This is the Moro version of the Spanish occupation of Mindanao. Bongos Island is situated about three miles off the mouth of the Rio Grande de Mindanao and is the island said by the Moros to have arisen where Bantugan' s ship had sunk. They say that deep within its mountains lives Bantugan and his warriors, and that when- ever a Moro's vinta or sailing boat passes by Bongos Island, Bantu- gan has watchers out to see whether or not there are women in the vinta, and if there are any that suit his fancy, they are snatched from their seats and carried deep into the interior of the mountain. For this reason the Moro women are very reluctant to go to the island of Bongos or even to sail by it. Timaco is an island marking the south side of the entrance to the north branch of the Rio Grande de Mindanao. It consists of one tall hill thickly covered with trees, and on it are found the only specimens of the " white monkey." These are said by the Moros to be the servants of Bantugan' s wife, who lives in the centre of the mountain. A Moro would not hurt one of them, but feeds them regularly. It is said that on a still day if one goes high up the mountain and listens carefully, he can hear the chanting and singing of the waiting girls of the wife of Bantugan and also hear the col- ingtangan (Moro musical instrument like a xylophone). Ralph S. Porter, U. S. V.